Monday, May 25, 2020
Often regarded as the greatest playwright of all time,Ã William Shakespeare is said to have died on April 23, 1616, which is believed to have been his 52nd birthday. The exact date of his death technically isnt certain, however;Ã the only known end-of-life documentation is a record of his burial on April 25, and his death date is assumed to have been two days earlier. When Shakespeare retired from London around 1610, he returned to Stratford-upon-Avon, the market town about 100 miles west of London on the River Avon where he was born. He spent the last few years of his life in New Place, the towns largest house, which he had purchased in 1597. It is believed that ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s death occurred in this house and would have been attended by his son-in-law, Dr. John Hall, the town physician. The Cause of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Death The cause of his death is not known, but some scholars believe that he had been sick for more than a month before he died. On March 25, 1616, Shakespeare signed his dictated will with a Ã¢â¬Å"shakyÃ¢â¬ signature, evidence of his frailty at the time. Also, it was customary in the early 17th century to draw up a will while on the deathbed, so Shakespeare was likely acutely aware that his life was coming to an end. One theory of the cause of his death arose from a diary entry written by the vicar of Stratford-upon-Avon who, 45 years after the incident, noted that Ã¢â¬Å"Shakespeare, Drayton, and Ben Jonson had a merry meeting, and it seems drank too hard; for Shakespeare died of a fever there contracted.Ã¢â¬ Of course, with Stratford-upon-AvonÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation in the 17th century for scandalous stories and rumors, it is difficult to authenticate this report, even if it was written by a vicar. ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Burial The Stratford Parish Register records ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s burial as occurring on April 25, 1616. As a local gentleman, he was buried inside Holy Trinity Church beneath a stone slab engraved with this self-written epitaph: Good friend, for Jesus sake forbearTo dig the dust enclosed here.Blessed be the man that spares these stones,And cursed be he that moves my bones. To this day, Holy Trinity Church remains a place of interest for Shakespeare enthusiastsÃ¢â¬âit is where he was both baptized and buried, marking the beginning and end of the BardÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Shakespeares Will ShakespeareÃ left the bulk of his possessions to his eldest daughter, Susanna, over his wife, Anne. Annes share famously included his second-best bed, which has drawn speculation that the couple had marital troubles. There is little evidence, however, that she had fallen out of favor. Some scholars note that the term second-best bed often refers to the marital bed, with the first-best bed being reserved for guests.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1607 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Ethics Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? BUSINESS ETHICS The Organizational Ethics concern an individuals moral judgments in regards to good and bad. Decisions taken at regular intervals is likewise made by individuals or groups, however whoever makes them are going to be affected by the society of the corporate. The decision to act morally may be a moral one laborer ought to choose what they accept is that the right game plan. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Business ethics and Deontology" essay for you Create order This could include dismissing the course that may bring about the most imperative short benefit. Moral conduct and organization social obligation will bring imperative focal points to a business. Case in point, they might: Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Attract clients to the companys item, along these lines boosting deals and benefits Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Make specialists wish to stay with the business, scale back work turnover and subsequently build profit Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Attract a ton of laborers urgent to work for the business, scale back accomplishment costs and change the corporate to impel the principal talented specialists Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¢Attract speculators and stay with the offer esteem high, accordingly defensive the business from takeover. Dishonest conduct or a nonattendance of organization social obligation, by examination, may harm a companys name and make it less speaking to stakeholders. Benefits may fall as a loss. ETHICAL APROACH A large portion of the study of ethics deals with the approach or supply of the principles or standards to be used for moral deciding in business. Variety of thought have developed that embrace the approaches. 1. Deontology Deontologists hold that bound underlying principles square measure right or wrong no matter the circumstances. For that reason, deontology is taken into account a Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ârule-basedÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã approach to ethics. To be an ethical person, one should not solely bring forth smart results however use the right suggests that and act with smart intentions. The most effective glorious deontologist is eighteenth century German thinker, Immanuel Kant, argued that folks will develop ethical principles through reasoning alone. Following his logic, one may reason that behaviors like telling a lie square measure wrong no matter the result, even though the lie was told so as to shield someoneÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s safely. Thus, its durable to develop inerrant, universal laws or categorical imperativ es concerning lying and different behavior. For example the student who refuses to cheat on exam is morally worthy if her or his decision springs from universal duty, but morally unworthy if the decision is merely born of self interest, such as fear of being caught. However how does the individual of goodwill comprehend what is right to react Kant propound the downright basic, the idea that each individual ought to follow up on just those standards that she or he , as an issue individual would recommend as all inclusive laws to be connected to the entire of humankind. This methodology is called as universalism. Universalism offers guidance with regard to the rules by which someone should make decisions. Kant recognized universal rights such as freedom of speech, freedom of consent, the right to privacy. Issues arise when an individual does not know which rules to follow. 2. Utilitarianism A different perspective is doctrine that focuses upon the ethical rightnes s of the results. A simplified clarification is that actions square measure smart if the implications square measure smart and unhealthy if the implications square measure unhealthy. Actions in and of themselves square measure neither ethical nor immoralÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬ it is that the results that count. This enables us another to deontology and ethical relativism; but, the most challenge is in knowing that consequences take priority over others. Utilitarianism additionally maintains that a moral act produces the best doable smart for the foremost individuals. Per eighteenth century thinker philosopher, an honest or ethical act is one that ends up in the best happiness for the best number. At face price, doctrine could seem to be a practicable idea; but, decisive the best happiness for the best range is advanced. Uses an example with Beech-Nut fruit crush that illustrates the matter. within the Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬ÃÅ"80s, the Beech-Nut Nutrition Corporation learned that a cargo of fr uit crush concentrate from a provider didnÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢t meet the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s standards as a result of some cases of the merchandise solely contained seasoned drinking water rather than pure juice. Failing to fulfill standards conferred an ethical quandary as a result of Beech-Nut marketed its juice as one hundred percent pure. Beech Nut came back the unused product however struggled confirm what to do and try to do regarding the used concentrate as a result of an examination of the finished product couldnt faithfully determine that cases contained actual juice and that contained drinking water. Beech Nut ultimately selected to require its possibilities with the general public and leave the merchandise on the market knowing it had been not one hundred pc pure, a call that was acceptable by Utilitarian standards however deemed unjust by critics who argued that Beech-Nut sacrificed customers for the companyÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s long economic viability. People w ho think they will be true to their ethics have probably never examined their ethics. (Badaracco, Webb, 1995). How would you choose which one is better Doing the right thing and Making the best choice Future clash between an individuals ethical decisions and an associations moral choices are most effortlessly tended to as somebody tries to join the association. In the event that an individual is prepared to join an organization or business, it is essential that he (or she) be displayed with the organizations center values and set of accepted rules (if accessible). The prospective new part should then figure out whether it is conceivable to accommodate their ethical decisions with the associations morals as passed on in the organizations qualities and implicit rules. Consent to join the organization certainly expect that this compromise has occurred, however it can be made unequivocal by obliging consent to an implicit rules. Tending to morals in choice making in busines s or other expansive associations or gatherings (e.g., government) does point to the need to guarantee that key centering choices (the choices highlighted in green) have been made and are set up. Specifically, the business choice for center qualities ought to be set up to give the objectives/necessities that will be utilized to make and oblige the criteria utilized as a part of the system of business choices. This centering choice can impact criteria for choices all through the system of business choices (the choices in blue), straightforwardly affecting moral choice making and authoritative behavior. Here are some criteria that can help guarantee fitting moral contemplations are a piece of the choices being made in the association: Consistence Does it fit in with the organizations qualities and code of morals? Does it meet (ought to surpass) legitimate prerequisites? Advance great and lessen hurt What arrangement will respect the vast majority while minimizing any conceivable mischief? Obligation What option gives the most capable reaction? Does the arrangement guarantee meeting our obligations as an issue corporate resident . Changing role of Ethics in the Organization Future In the 21st century, morals is not an alternative. More than capability, experience, sagacity and drive, individuals at all levels of an association need moral qualities. As indicated by Kidder (2001), The guideline errand of this decade is the creation and sustaining of qualities based society. Due to the far reaching measure of time individualÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â ¢s use at work, much of that supporting must happen in the business environment. Rushworth M. Kidder is the organizer and president of the Institute for Global Ethics, an association whose exploration has recognized four key variables in making qualities based society. These variables include: Imparted center qualities As indicated by Kidder (2001), there are five center qualities found in some structure in every society around the world. They are genuineness, regard, obligation, reasonableness and empathy. A qualities based society will make these center val ues the main thrust in choice making. Regular dialect Representatives require a dialect of morals that permits them to convey promptly and agreeably about issues that are commonly delicate and hard to examine. Successful morals preparing projects give the regular dialect required. Duty at the top Morals preparing is useless without top-level administrators who walk the discussion. At the point when pioneers reliably compensate the individuals who decide to do the right thing, it serves to make a moral society more than all else could. Moral boldness Kidder (2001) depicts moral valor as the nature of psyche and soul that empowers one to face up to moral issues and good wrongdoings immovably and unhesitatingly, without recoiling or withdrawing. Morals, way of life and society must get to be interwoven to the point that they cant be divided. They constitute how individuals identify with each other in the home, the working environment and all aspects of society. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hyper Links Decision-making-solutions.com, (2014). Ethics in Decision Making. Available at: https://www.decision-making-solutions.com/ethics_in_decision_making.html [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Regent.edu, (2014). The Role of Ethics in 21st Century Organizations Leadership Advance Online, School of Business Leadership, Regent University, Virginia Beach, Virginia. Available at: https://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/lao/issue_11/brimmer.htm [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Web.utk.edu, (2014). Ethical Models. Available at: https://web.utk.edu/~rhovland/EthicalModels.html [Accessed 27 Nov. 2014]. Publication Laura P Hartman. (2005) Perspectives in Business Ethics. McGraw-Hill Irwin, page no 8 9.  Perspectives in Business Ethics, Laura P Hartman, 2005, page 8.  Perspectives in Business Ethics, Laura P Hartman, 2005, page 8.  Perspectives in Business Ethics, Laura P Hartman, 2005, page 9.  https://web.utk.edu/~rhovland/EthicalModels.html  https://web.utk.edu/~rhovland/EthicalModels.html  https://www.decision-making-solutions.com/ethics_in_decision_making.html  https://www.decision-making-solutions.com/ethics_in_decision_making.html  https://www.regent.edu/acad/global/publications/lao/issue_11/brimmer.htm
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Adult Dental Health Survey 2009 ItÃ¢â¬â¢s fifth in line of the national dental surveys since 1968. Carried out in England, Wales and Northern Ireland with aims to review changes over time in dental health, knowledge people about dental care and examine their experiences. Summary- There is visible improvement in all three areas in age group 20-45. There is noticeable connection between regular brushing and longer lasting teeth and overall better health. From the position of attendance- majority of the adults attended regularly at least every 2 years and even itÃ¢â¬â¢s still difficult to find NHS dentist vast majority of the adults manage book and attend appointment. There is higher rate of the carries in the families from manual occupationsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Acidic foods and drinks can be just as harmful. The acid erodes enamel, exposing the dentine underneath and causing teeth sensitivity. The lower the pH, the more acidic the product is. Anything with a pH value lower than 5.5 may cause erosion: Ã¢â¬ ¢ mineral water (still) pH 7.6 Ã¢â¬ ¢ milk pH 6.9 Ã¢â¬ ¢ cheddar cheese pH 5.9 Ã¢â¬ ¢ lager pH 4.4 Ã¢â¬ ¢ orange juice pH 3.8 Ã¢â¬ ¢ grapefruit pH 3.3 Ã¢â¬ ¢ pickles pH 3.2 Ã¢â¬ ¢ cola pH 2.5 Ã¢â¬ ¢ red wine pH 2.5 Ã¢â¬ ¢ vinegar pH 2.0 4) What food is best to avoid? The World Health Organization advises that daily intake of free sugars should be 25g for women (approximately five-six teaspoons) and 35g for men (seven-eight teaspoons). Everybody knows the foods like sweets and chocolate, cakes and biscuits, pastries, jam, honey, ice cream, contains loads of sugar, but not everybody realizes, there is also loads of sugar in products such as breakfast cereals, fruit in syrup, dried fruit, pasta sauces or ketchup. How much sugar is inÃ¢â¬ ¦.? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Milky Way bar (58g) - 8.75 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Twix bar (50.7g) - 6 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Alpen - 5.75 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cheerios - 1 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Corn Flakes - 2.4 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Cocoa Krispies - 9.75 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Raisin Bran - 7.75 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Rice Krispies - 2.5 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Special K - 3 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Shredded Wheat - 0.1 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mangos - 3.2 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Bananas - 3 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Apples - 2.6 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ Grapes - 4 ts of sugar Ã¢â¬ ¢ StrawberriesShow MoreRelatedThe Benefits Of Public Health919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPublic Health Problem Identification (Agenda Setting) Cost Dental benefits for Medicaid adults are not federally mandated which poses a cost barrier for beneficiaries (Paradise Hinton, 2016; Mc-Ginn-Shapiro, 2008; Hinton Paradise, 2016; MACPAC, 2015). According to Saloner, Polsky, Kenney, Hempstead and Rhodes (2015), Ã¢â¬Å"A medical bill of $100 would represent about one-tenth of the monthly income of a single adult living at the poverty level. Thus, low-income adults will often delay or forego careRead MoreThe Benefits Of Medicaid In America1380 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesFoundation [KFF], 2012). Non-elderly, uninsured, childless adults who, prior to the legislation, were ineligible for Medicaid were the focus of this provision (KFF, 2012). As part of the Medicaid expansion, newly eligible adults must be offered alternative benefit plans (Medicaid and CHIP Payment and Access Commission [MACPAC], n.d.). Plans must provide 10 essential health benefits; none include dental coverage (preventative or emergency) for adults (MACPAC, n.d.). 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The progress of smoking occasionally to smoking every day is due to the highly addictive drug called nicotine. There are severalRead MoreHat Task 1 Essay1012 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCounty Michigan. I gathered data from several different resources such as the Kent County Health Department and Michigan Department of Community Health in order to create a community assessment. The data I collected can be broken down into four different assessment pieces. The first assessment piece is labeled population and economic status. I obtained the majority of this information from the Kent County Health Department. Kent County is located in the middle of West Michigan in the Southern PeninsulaRead MoreThe Affordable Health Care Act1024 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesObama. The law was passed that the number of Americans covered by health insurance would increase. In return, the cost of health care will decrease. What is the Affordable Health Care Act? 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Every person might feel depressed once in a while, this is usually short lived, and cannot be used as a diagnostic criteria for depressionRead MoreFinal Program Plans On The Effects Of Bullying Essay1768 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesEffects of Bullying Danville Community College Holly Knight ASSESSMENT: PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM: Bullying is one of the largest public health problems in the world today. Bullying involves the use of force, threat, or coercion to abuse, intimidate, or aggressively dominate others (Wikipedia). Children and adults are bullied in school, work, and even on the internet. Bullying can cause physical and mental health issues as well as a decrease in academic performance. It may also cause depression andRead MoreThe Consequences And Risk Factors Of Child Abuse And Neglect930 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagessome kind of maltreatment around the world each year (Odhayani, A. A, Watson, W.J, Waston, L, 2013). 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Choose one health promotion theory covered during this paper. Define this theory; explain its origins; and explore why you chose this theory. Answer: Family and obese children in Australia Behavioural or Behaviourism theory is a learning concept concentrating on objectively evident behaviours and deducts any independent actions of the mind. Behaviour theologist defines learning as acquisition of new activities based on environmental conditions. Experiment by the behaviourist identifies conditioning as a general learning process. There are various kinds of conditioning, each producing an unlike behavioural design. Classical conditioning happens when a natural correspond to the stimulus. Behavioural conditioning arises when a reaction to a stimulus is protected. If a reward trails the response to a stimulus, then the result becomes possible in forthcoming. For instance, B.F Skinner utilised strengthening method to train pigeons to dance (Skinner, 2014, p. 15). The theory of behaviour combined the elements of philosophy, methodology and psychology theory. The first derivatives of behaviourism can be found back in the 19th century when Thorndike Edward established the law of effect. During the 20th century Watson. John invented procedural behaviourism which overruled thoughtful way and pursued to comprehend behaviour by only assessing notable events and practices (Skinner, 2014, p. 17). In 1930, B.F Skinner advocated that actions such as feelings should be exposed to the same governing variables as visible behaviours. As Ivan Pavlov and Watson examined the stimulus and reaction processes of classical conditioning, Skinner evaluated the guiding type of significances and its potential effect known as operant conditioning. Skinners radical behaviourism has been highly successful experimentally. Skinner realised that much human action could not be clarified by simple conditions that appeared to foresee animal reactions, though he did much labour with pigeons that supported in explaining more multifaceted behaviour (Keller and Schoenfeld, 2014, p. 21). In the 1960s, Albert Bandura supplemented social learning to the theory of behaviourism, displaying how interaction with other defines much how people reason and act in response. However, not until the 1980s when Fred Luthan applied the theory of behaviour to management and business (Keller and Schoenfeld, 2014, p. 23). Obesity occurrence has folded among grown-ups and overweight has trebled among kid since 1980s (Eysenck and Martin, 2013, p.8). Over the four decades, time spent in the intake of fast diet, sedentary activities, the operational situation, and the ratio of females in the workforce have transformed intensely. The collective influence due to change in eating and exercise routines embraced by the Australian have been dreadful. To inverse the obesity tendency situation, physical and social environment that is beneficial must advance. Behaviours tactics to weight loss have been confirmed to be the most effective at stimulating distinct health behaviours modifications. But, the changes will persevere if supported by school, family, organisations, communities, policies and work surroundings. Children obesity is a new epidemic of a contemporary society whose importance is far enormous regarding effects it creates. The price of having an obese preschooler will not only set a family back a few hundred dollars a year but also cost the nation more than $17 million" (Colagiuri et al., 2010, p. 260). The centre of research excellence in the early prevention of obesity in childhood research found that the annual direct cost to the Australian healthcare system is $17 million, and the cost to families is $367 a year compared to healthy weight youngsters (Colagiuri et al., 2010, p. 262). According to the study, around 20% of children are already overweight or obese by the time they start school and 5% of Australian children aged 2-4 years are categorised as obese (OECD, 2017, p. 2). It is alleged that approximately 20-40% of obese school-aged kids continue to be obese in youth and about 80% keep on being overweight in adulthood (Cecchini and Warin, 2016, p. 202). The matching compl ication in the upcoming years is cardiovascular disease, the risk of heart attack, and diabetes. Moreover, the concerns become not only a health problem of a person but also have its social implications such as sick leave, medical treatment, and reduced working capacity (Galbraith?Emami and Lobstein, 2013, p.260). New development in the communication policies includes understanding designs for food labelling, the use of public links and innovative tools for fitness promotion drives, mass media campaigns to increase public awareness, and reinforce regulations of advertising of possibly harmful products, mainly when focused to kids (OECD, 2017, p. 9). Comprehensive policy packages on the communication and school-based inventions, primary care setting interventions and broader fiscal, regulatory policies, offer a reasonable and cost-effective resolution to prevent obesity. For instance, Australia case study illustrates those users who accessed the food labelling figures chose meals with approximately 120kcal lower energy contents (Morley et al., 2013, p. 8). Additionally, the 2+5 a day mass campaign backed a population increase in the mean digit of vegetables and fruits serving by roughly 0.2 in Western Australia over three years (OECD, 2017, p. 9). Evaluation and designing The following are procedures for planning and assessing health promotion platforms they originate from the behavioural theory. The rules suggest that one should: evaluate the connection between various features of health and different condition of social and physical setting (Garbarino, 2017, p. 28). Also one should scrutinise the mutual influences of dispositional, demographical, behavioural, and progressive aspects of individuals' exposures and reactions to environmental demands and hazards. Additionally, one should identify the organisational and behavioural leverage point for the health promotions (Krishnan, 2010, p.12). One should also design social interpositions that have lasting positive impacts on well-being. Integration of biomedical, behavioural, regulations and environmental interventions for health promotions is also essential. Using multiple techniques to gauge the wellbeing and cost-effectiveness of universal packages is necessary. Lifestyles changes and weight control remain vibrant process where relapse is probably at any level of cure. Thus, there is keen attention in understanding the procedure that stimulates behaviour and efficient implementation of good conducts. Self-efficacy is a critical hypothesis favourite within the various theory of behavioural. According to the method, divergence and self-efficacy have to be present to activate. Active weight lessening programs are required to prevent the contemporary forms of obesity. Because the behavioural techniques to weight loss include lifestyle change of behaviour, it can provide optimism for a more prosperous long-term weight reduction. Behavioural-base packages contain a mixture of the following approaches; self-controlling, goals setting, modelling, stimulus control, reinforcement, cognitive behavioural methods, and relapse prevention (Eysenck and Martin, 2013, p.11). The behavioural theory strategies have proven to be useful for treating childhood ove rweight. However, childhood weight should be addressed by the family level since kids environment is primarily influenced by the parent decisions and behaviours. A family style may inspire parents to limit the period their kid spends in sedentary events such as establishing consistent snack and meal times, watching TV, removing tempting food from home and model healthy behaviours References Cecchini, M. and L. Warin. (2016). Impact of Food Labelling Systems on Food Choices and Eating Behaviours: A Systematic Review and Meta?analysis of Randomized Studies, Obesity Reviews, Vol. 17(3), pp. 201-210. Colagiuri, S., Lee, C. M., Colagiuri, R., Magliano, D., Shaw, J. E., Zimmet, P. Z., Caterson, I. D. (2010). The cost of overweight and obesity in Australia.Med J Aust,192(5), 260-4. Eysenck, H. J., and Martin, I. (Eds.). (2013).Theoretical foundations of behavior therapy. Springer Science Business Media, pp. 8-14. Galbraith?Emami, S. and T. Lobstein. (2013). The Impact of Initiatives to Limit the Advertising of Food and Beverage Products to Children: A Systematic Review, Obesity Reviews, Vol. 14(12), pp. 960-974. Keller, F. S., and Schoenfeld, W. N. (2014).Principles of psychology: A systematic text in the science of behavior(Vol. 2). BF Skinner Foundation, pp.21-29. Morley, B. et al. (2013). What Types of Nutrition Menu Labelling Lead Consumers to Select Less Energy-dense Fast Food? An Experimental Study, Appetite, Vol. 67, pp. 8-15. OECD .(2017). Obesity update. (2017). [Online]. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/els/health-systems/Obesity-Update-2017.pdf accessed on 26 March 2018, pp. 2-12 Skinner, B. F. (2014).Contingencies of reinforcement: A theoretical analysis(Vol. 3). BF Skinner Foundation, pp. 15-19.
Tuesday, April 7, 2020
An inspector calls is a play by JB Priestley Essay Example An inspector calls is a play by JB Priestley Essay An inspector calls is a play by JB Priestley Essay Essay Topic: Literature An inspector calls is a play by JB Priestley. It is set in 1912 but was written in 1945, just months after the end of World War II. It was no coincidence however, that Priestley chose to write the play at this time, it was indeed his deliberate action to publish it at such a vulnerable time. England was currently undergoing a period of great social and political change. And as many people had been affected by the war and the nation in need of drastic renovation, most people were leaning towards the introduction of a more socialist government in hope that it would draw a finer line between the extremely wealthy and the poor. However, much of the middle and upper classes still remained faithful to the ideals of capitalism, whereas Priestley, himself coming from a modest background, also favoured the ideals of socialism, many of which are presented in the play. Priestleys political views had also been very much influenced by major incidents that had occurred throughout his life. Born in 1894, he would have himself been a witness to both world wars, which would have had a great impact on his social outlook. The depression of the 1930s would also have changed his views or shed new light on how he believed society should operate. After the Wall Street crash in 1929, millions of Americans were in desperate need of financial help from the government. However, the current government, under Herbert Hoover, disapproved of such involvement in its citizens lives. His capitalist ideal of rugged individualism encouraged the belief of every man for himself. Of course this had worked fine throughout the boom of the 1920s where people did not necessitate government aid, but now as people were starving and being evicted from their homes, rugged individualism was doomed for failure. However, when FDR Roosevelt was elected in 1929, major improvements were made within the space of a year. FDR believed in having a closer relationship with his people, he believed in everybody having more of a collective responsibility. Billions of dollars were spent on setting up major projects including numerous agencies which each dealt with separate areas of unemployment. These attempts to resuscitate America worked, unemployment fell steadily down and America gradually returned to more or less how it had been in the early 1920s. Having lived through such times would have caused Priestley to take mental note of such significant events, the depression would only have strengthened his belief in socialism and collective responsibility. The play therefore, was written primarily as a vehicle for Priestleys social comment, and as the election of 1945 was steadily approaching, he chose to publish it at this time in an attempt to influence peoples ideas. The novel was written in the form of a play in order to convey this political message to the desired audience. During the period that the play was written, the theatre was mostly frequented by the upper and middle classes, and so this would seemingly be the most direct way of putting such a message across. However, Priestley had to be very careful about how he went about this. If the audience realised that they were in fact being lectured, the play would not prove to be very popular and become unsuccessful in achieving its objective. Priestley therefore disguised his message in the form of a play about a middle class man and his family. The curtain opens on the dining room of a fairly large suburban house. This setting is constant throughout and is only altered in terms of light. The family is celebrating Sheilas engagement to Gerald, Mr Birlings daughter and business competitor. The lighting at first is soft and pink, and the furniture both cosy and typical of the period. This familiar atmosphere would instantly put the audience at ease with what they are seeing, it would have been a familiar scene with which most of the audience could relate and feel comfortable with. Priestley used this technique specifically as a way of putting the audiences guard down, in order for them to fully absorb the social message that arises later in the play. In other words, the audience is now more susceptible to Priestleys message. The first character we are presented with is Mr Birling, we are told in the opening stage directions that he is a rather portentous man, and indeed his speeches would seem to reflect that. He states very briefly how glad he is about the engagement and then moves on to a speech about how Sheila and Gerald are marrying at a time of steadily increasing prosperity. We soon begin to realise that Mr Birling is a very opinionated man, but also begin to wonder how worthwhile his opinions actually are: Youll hear some people say wars inevitable, and to that I say fiddlesticks! The Germans dont want war. Nobody wants war His speeches give us an impression of a pompous, dogmatic man who only seems to value his own opinion: The titanic she sails next week forty six thousand eight hundred tons -New York in five days and every luxury and unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable. Of course these quotes would be very ironic for the audience as they all know that both the sinking of the titanic and war did in fact occur; this is known as dramatic irony. Other statements also seem to suggest that Mr Birling simply sees the marriage as a way of becoming socially mobile: Your father and I have been business rivals for some time now though Crofts Limited are both older and bigger than Birling and Company and now youve brought us together, and perhaps we may look forward to the time when Crofts and Birlings are no longer competing, but working together, for lower costs and igher prices. Not only do Birlings speeches make us realise how arrogant and futile his opinions are, but they also reveal that he is in fact a staunch capitalist; he does try to justify his opinions but also entirely neglects the fact that not everybody has equal opportunities in life. He ignores the fact that not everybody can work hard to achieve to success, as not everybody has the privilege of an education or even a job to work hard in: Youd think that everybody had to look after everybody, as if we were all mixed up together like bees in a hive community and all that nonsense. Priestley uses an interesting device in this quote, he actually paradoxes himself as a way of challenging the middle class values; the way some of these cranks talk these days He also mentions other authors prior to himself who had very similar values to him: We cant let these Bernard Shaws and HG Wellses do all the talking. We hard- headed practical businessmen must say something sometime. At this point, conveniently in the middle of one of Birlings capitalist speeches, an inspector intrudes on the evenings celebrations. The lights become harder and brighter at his entrance, as a way of signifying a powerful presence. However, this could also be criticised for making the audience feel uncomfortable with the inspectors presence, possibly making them more resistant or reluctant to accept his message. The inspector in the play is a powerful, or rather omniscient figure who is used as a vehicle to promote the authorial viewpoint. And although most of the audience will at present not be aware that they are in fact being openly criticised or challenged, some may have picked it up when Mr Birling, an obvious representation of the upper classes, was being ridiculed in his speeches. The Inspector arrives at the scene concerning the suicide of a young girl called Eva Smith; who died earlier that evening after drinking a large dose of strong disinfectant in an act of suicide. And although Mr Birling is reluctant to answer questions on such an occasion, the inspectors persistence and immunity to Birlings hints of his friendship to Chief Colonel Roberts force him to undergo an interview with the inspector. After questioning, it is revealed that Mr Birling did in fact know Eva Smith, she had been a worker at his factory before he fired her two years ago. When Birling is asked why, he admits that she was a good worker, but he was forced to sack her because she had had the audacity to ask for higher wages. He is at this point confronted by his own son, Eric, who thinks that his father was wrong for sacking Eva Smith simply because she had more charisma than the others; Why shouldnt she try for higher wages? We try for the highest possible prices You said yourself she was a good worker. What Priestley was trying to convey here, was his belief that the younger generation offered more optimism to the ideas of socialism, and that social views in society were beginning to change. This is further reinforced when we meet Sheila, Mr Birlings daughter. Mr Birling however, continues to completely deny any responsibility on Eva Smiths suicide, stating that he had sacked her nearly two years ago, and that he could therefore have nothing to do with the suicide whatsoever. The inspector however, seems to disagree: What happened to her then may have determined what happened to her afterwards, and what happened to her afterwards may have driven her to suicide. A chain of events. At this point Sheila enters, completely oblivious to the inspectors arrival. When told of her fathers actions however, she agrees with Eric and the inspector, and seems to sympathise greatly with the death of the poor girl: But these girls arent cheap labour, theyre people. Sheila gives the impression of a caring, compassionate young girl, but in retrospective irony, the audience will soon realise how improper her words are. After some persuasion from the inspector, Mr Birling allows his daughter to be questioned. The inspector had previously mentioned that after having been fired from Birling and Co. Eva Smith was out of work for two months, and having no parents or home to go back to, she lived in lodgings with the little money she had saved from working at the factory. It so happened however that she had a wonderful stroke of luck and found a job at Milwards, a popular and somewhat prestigious fashion store of the time. However, after about a couple of months, just as she felt that she was settling down nicely, they told her she had to go. It was admitted that it had nothing to do with how Eva was working, but that a customer had made a complaint and so she would have to leave. Upon hearing this Sheila becomes uneasy and asks what the girl looked like, the inspector moves nearer towards a light and shows her a photograph of Eva, at which Sheila gives a little cry and rushes out of the room. When later Sheila is confronted with her actions, amidst repentant pleas she admits that she complained to the manager of Milwards because she had been jealous of Eva: The dress suited her, she was the right type for it. She was a very pretty girl too and that didnt make it any better. When I tried the thing on I knew it was ll wrong, I caught sight of this girl smiling at Miss Francis as if to say, doesnt she look awful and I was absolutely furious. While Priestley still thought that the younger generation provided greater hope for the ideas of socialism, this shows how he felt anyone could fall victim to hypocrisy, and how it would be very easy, however sorry afterwards, for anyone born into such wealth to succumb to the uncontrollable flaws of human nature. The play at this point seems to be that of a straightforward, detective thriller. As each of the characters involvement with Eva Smith is eventually revealed, the structure of the play seems to evolve into one of a whodunit, as each person unravels a piece of Eva Smiths history. The next person to be confronted is Gerald Croft. When it is announced that Eva Smith later changed her name to Daisy Renton he is startled and it becomes quite obvious that he has heard that name before, however he remains silent while the inspector leaves the room. Sheila senses however that something is wrong and forces Gerald into confession. He, or rather Sheila, who unravels the situation herself, reveals that he was in fact having an affair with Daisy for almost six months. Gerald tries to persuade Sheila into keeping this information from the inspector, but in something of a fit of hysteria she points out that he already knows. The omniscient inspector, even through detailed questioning, has not actually discovered anything that he didnt already know. In fact he never actually directly accuses anyone, but somehow, in a somewhat intimidating manner and a disconcerting habit of looking hard at the person he addresses, he is driving them all into confession: Why you fool he knows. Of course he knows. And I hate to think how much he knows that we dont know yet. Youll see. Youll see. Gerald eventually admits his Affair with Daisy, but claims that his initial intentions were good. He explains that after having met her in a bar and discovering that she had no place to live, he offered her some money and temporary stay in an empty friends house. When the inspector asks him if she eventually became his mistress however, he admits: Yes. I suppose it was inevitable. She was young, pretty and warm-hearted and intensely grateful. The act ends when Gerald confesses his affair with Eva Smith to Sheila. Priestley does this deliberately to heighten the audiences suspense with this use of climaxes, always ensuring that they are left with a cliff-hanger at the end of each act. The audiences interest is sustained not only by the progressive revelation of each persons involvement with the suicide, but also the desire to find out who, primarily, was responsible for Eva Smiths death. After Geralds confession, the inspector turns to Mrs Birling. At first she too is extremely reluctant to answer any questions, and also denies recognising the photograph of Eva Smith. But the inspector, in his omniscience, makes Mrs Birling realise that there is no use in denying recognition. The inspector makes her admit that she did in fact know this girl, and that she had refused her help two weeks ago when she had pleaded to her. (She was at the time chair of the Brumley womens charity organisation. ) When asked why, Mrs Birling calmly and unemotionally claims that she did not believe the girls story, and that she also was instantly prejudiced against her as she had enough impudence to give herself the name Birling. It is also revealed that Daisy Renton was in fact pregnant, and even though Mrs Birling was perfectly aware of this, not only did she refuse her help, but she also saw to it that others refused it too. Furthermore she recounts that she couldnt believe the girls story because Daisy had mentioned refusing money from the father of the child as it was stolen, and admittingly, Mrs Birling states that she found this very hard to believe: As if a girl of that sort would refuse money. This comment would seem to insinuate that the working classes have no morals, and would jump at any opportunity, however drastic, for money. However harsh her actions may have been though, Mrs Birling continues to vehemently deny any responsibility for Daisy Rentons death. She has no trouble however, in shifting the blame onto her own husband: And remember before you start accusing me of anything again that it wasnt I who turned her out of her employment, which probably began it all. The inspector then asks Mrs Birling whom she really believes the chief culprit is in the whole ordeal. First, she mentions the girl herself, but when asked to specify, she claims that if Daisys story was true, and the father truly was an immature drunk, then he should be the one to accept the entire blame. Not only does she say that she believes he is the chief culprit, but also makes sure to mention him having to be dealt with very severely. And despite pleas from Sheila for her mother to stop, Mrs Birling says this quite calmly, perfectly unaware that this person is of course, her own son: Mother I begged and begged you to stop But surely I mean its ridiculous I dont believe it, I wont believe it. The curtain opens with Eric entering the room as the others simply stare at him. He seems genuinely distressed and his attitude to the accusations would seem to resemble Sheilas. Erics confession turns out to be the most shocking, as not only do we find out that he is the father of the child, but also that he is a heavy drinker and that he had to even resort to stealing money from his own father. He claims to have met Eva at a bar, where he started talking to her and then they both ended up drunk by the time they had to leave. He remembers little after that, but recounts meeting her again a fortnight later. Once again he drank, but moderately, and so this time remembers going back to her house and making love. After finding out that Daisy was pregnant however, Eric offered to marry her, but she refused, saying that he was speaking out of duty, not of love. Eric however, still felt inclined to give her money until she found a job, and insisted that she accept fifty pounds: And where did you get fifty pounds from? I got it from the office You mean you stole the money? It is at this point that the play reveals its second form that of a morality play. The inspectors final speech claims that while Arthur Birling may have started the whole ordeal, each and everybody in that room was responsible for Eva Smiths suicide. And while it is too late to save Eva, as he claims: There are millions and millions of Eva Smiths and John Smiths still left with us, with their lives, hopes and fears, their suffering and chance, all intertwined with our lives And I tell you that the time will come soon when, if men will ot learn that lesson, then they will be taught it in fire and blood and anguish. Priestleys last comment here would seem to be a reference to world war one, which occurred two years after the play was set. It is important to remember that while these are just characters in a fictional play, Priestley intended each one of them to represent a microcosm of society. Mr Birling is the rather selfish middle class businessman, but who is also seen as quite a laughable or pathetic figure whose opinions are not taken seriously by the audience. Mrs Birling represents the emotionally cold upper class woman who doesnt show the slightest bit of remorse for having turned away a pregnant woman for help, apart from when of-course she discovers shes had a part to play in the death of her own grand-son. Gerald is the young, carefree, well-off businessman who is primarily concerned with his having a good time. And finally, Eric and Sheila both represent the rather hypocritical but altogether more compassionate younger generation. Indeed, when it is eventually discovered that the inspector was not actually an inspector at all, and that no girl had actually committed suicide that day, Sheila and Eric are the only two who still show remorse for their actions: Everything we said had happened really had happened. If it didnt end tragically then thats lucky for us. But it might have done whoever that inspector was, it was anything but a joke. You began to learn something. And now youve stopped. Youre ready to go in the same old way. While Eric and Sheila are still aware of the consequences their actions may have led to, the rest of the family breathe a sigh of relief and talk rather amusedly about the supposed hoax. However, the play ends in a rather unpredictable fashion. Just as Mr Birling is laughing at Eric and Sheila for not being able to take a joke, the phone rings sharply, he answers it, and then turns round in a panic-stricken fashion at the others: That was the police. A girl has just died on her way to the infirmary after swallowing some disinfectant. And a police inspector is coming round to ask some questions As they stare guiltily and dumbfounded, the curtain falls By closing the play in such a way, Priestley has turned the ending itself into a dramatic device. The audience will now leave the theatre wondering what the ending actually meant. Was the inspector a realistic, straightforward police inspector? Was he a hoaxer? Or did he, in his omniscience, represent something supernatural? All these questions are deliberately left unanswered by Priestly so that the audience will leave thinking about the play, and then hopefully, about the message it conveyed.
Monday, March 9, 2020
Protecting innovation methods Introduction Protecting innovation methods IntroductionProtecting Innovation MethodsCopyrightTrademark Trade Secret Bibliography Related Introduction Protecting Innovation Methods Wholly Proprietary Systems are those focused on technology that is company owned and protected through patents, copyrights, secrecy or other mechanisms. The following methods that Everything Everywhere are currently applying to protect its innovation are: Copyright Trademark Trade secret Copyright Copyrights are becoming one of the most essential methods to protect innovation due to the advances of new technology, the reasoning behind this is because of the economy rising rapidly relying on the storage, conveying and managing the information. However the restrictions imposed on the efficiency of the copyright make it more difficult to maintain the regulation. For instance copyright laws have been unsuccessful in keeping up with progress of technology of the Internet as nowadays the materials can be easily plagiarized without gaining permission from the owner. T-mobile and Orange protects its websites and its contents through copyright and database rights this gives exclusive rights that the data that is presented on the website are protected and licensed to Everything Everywhere Limited. The copyrights at Everything Everywhere, allows protecting the company from illegal replication of their work. For example, Everything Everywhere website provides all necessary information and required details for their customers about the products or services such as browsing the site, downloading and printing materials in order to use for personal and non-commercial needs. However, devoid of prior written agreement or authorization from Everything Everywhere Limited would not permit illegal users to replica, store, allocate, broadcast, or modify the content of their website for any principle. As Everything Everywhere has effectively secured through copyright since it usually limited for outside users.Ã Although the continuation of copyright at Everyt hing Everywhere might not be adequate to maintain stopping illegal users from exploiting their material. Trademark A trademark is a symbol or indicator which is used to identify the origin of a product or company, distinguishing it from other source of products, services, or companies. These are one the three essential forms of intellectual possession rights along with patent and copyrights. However, trademarks differ from other type of intellectual property rights this includes patents in assisting to protect the underlying invention and copyrights that protects the expression of an idea. Everything Everywhere is the symbol and phrase of their trademark, this clearly relates to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s network for example their customers will have good access to mobile networks everywhere in the world. Through using an effective trademark identity it allows Everything Everywhere to ensure that they strongly secure and protect their innovative products and services. Since their customers will be very familiar and well able to recognise the services and products offered by Everything Everywhere. Moreover, they are also aware that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s trademark doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t develop to be generic. If the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s trademarks develop to become common this will allow others to make use of their materials with no panic of trademark contravention from Everything Everywhere limited. Ã However, Everything Everywhere Limited ensures that they concerned of protecting their innovation. Trade Secret Everything Everywhere has been skilled as a trade secret under the Uniform Trade Secret Act through following the three main criteria required for trade secret information as mentioned below: The material or details is required to not be in all-purpose familiar or freely ascertainable during genuine. The information should include economic significance which depends on their information which is confidential. To protect the secrecy of information reasonable measures should be taken by Everything Everywhere who are the trade secret holder Everything Everywhere benefits by using trade secret , since this protection can be applied for long period as far as the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s information are kept and maintained secretly. Furthermore the cost of maintaining the trade secret are low. Although trade secret protection requires to be controlled and employed frequently in order make sure that the confidentiality of the company are secret. Bibliography Alcock, L., Chen, P, H., and Hodson, S. (2003) Online piracy of recorded music, Journal of Brand Management, vol.11, iss.2, retrieved August 8, 2004, Langenderfer and Cook (2001, p.280 docstoc.com/docs/70352974/Everything-Everywhere-Limited http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/consultations/copyright-infringement/responses/Everything_Everywhere_Limit1.pdf iccwbo.org/uploadedFiles/BASCAP/Pages/Davis.pdf wirelessweek.com/News/Feeds/2010/05/wireless-everything-everywhere-tm-orange-and-t-mobile-u/ businessknowledgesource.com/marketing/howatrademarkcanidyourmarketing026281.htm
Friday, February 21, 2020
Functions of Management Paper - Essay Example The different groups of beverages include water, alcoholic beverages, non-alcoholic beverages, soft drinks, hot beverages and other forms. The main focus of the study is the processing of the drinks for consumption. For that matter, the organizations and companies that are involved in production and packaging of such beverages and drinks are included in the analysis of the management functions. For the products that are naturally consumed, packaging is the most important method that is needed to be considered. On the other hand, for the products that had been developed as beverage, the production can be considered as the most important method in the operation (Thompson and Sheldon, 2003). In the beverage industry, the application of the functions of management can be considered as a fundamental issue. The process of management can be considered a chronological process which starts in planning and concluded through the maintenance of the different methods and procedures in operation. Planning is the initial function in management which involves the determination of the different factors that can affect the profitability and the sales of the company. In the case of beverage companies, there are different factors that are needed to be considered. One is the determination of the trends in the market and the demands for the different products (Thompson and Sheldon, 2003). The present trend that can be observed is the increase in the demand for the beverages that are considered to border on the health consciousness of the public. This can be a related to the increasing consideration of the population on the maintenance of their health and body condition due to the deteriorating quality of life that can be considered to make such goals a challenge. In addition, there is an observable decrease in the consumption of alcoholic beverages basically also related to the consciousness of the people over their own welfare